Upagraha and Aprakash Graha : Introduction
Native was a criminal, with no education, he did his first murder at the age of 14 and after that, a series of grim crimes followed his fate. When I checked his horoscope once again, I saw Upaketu and Mrityu closely afflicting his ascendant and Moon. Offcourse the time given was incorrect, after knowing his past details, I changed his birth time to be 03:53:43 which is quite far away from the time given to us which was 04:55:00. However the ascendant cased by me using “True Lahiri/Chitrapaksha Ayanamsa” was correct [Aquarius], and it was a great learning experience for me.
When I first started researching about the importance of Panchanga in Predictions, the basic motive of mine was to develop a system using which we can quickly see a horoscope and tell about the Karma of the native, right now if we want to know what a native is internally, we have to see many factors and many times it becomes confusing, the Panchanga system developed by me, quickly tells about the native using a single technique. I will reveal this technique one by one in my Panchanga article series, eight articles are to be written, of them, only one is written till now and you can read it here.
Introduction – Sage Parashara introduces us to Aprakash Graha’s and Upagraha’s in the chapter dealing with Nature and Appearance of planets, this tells us that these Aprakash Graha’s and Upagraha’s are also considered equal to planets and we must not ignore them, they are equally important as planets. I am quoting relevant Shloka’s from that Chapter and it’s translation by me below.
त्रयंशाढयविश्वभागैश्च चतुर्भैः सहितो रविःI
धूमो नाम महादोषः सर्वकर्मविनाशकःII61II
धूमो मण्डलतः शुद्धो व्यतीपातोअत्र दोषदःI
सषडभोअत्र व्यतीपातः परिवेषोअतिदोषकृतII62II
एकराशियुतः केतुः सुर्यतुल्यः प्रजायतेI
अप्रकाशग्रहास्चैतै पाप दोषप्रदाः स्मृताःII64II
Translation – Add 04 Signs, 13 degree and 20 minutes in the longitude of Sun, this will give the position of Dhooma [Aprakash Graha] which is a great defect and destroys all Karma’s. Subtracting the position of Dhooma [Longitude] from 12 Signs give the position of Vyatipata which is another flaw. Adding 06 Signs to Vyatipata gives the position of Parivesha which is another great flaw. Subtracting position of Parivesha from 12 signs gives the position of Indrachapa which is another flaw. Adding 16 degrees 40 minutes to the position of Indrachapa gives the position of Upaketu which is inauspicious. Adding 1 Sign to Upaketu gives the position of Sun [for next day]. These Aprakasha Graha’s are malefics and gives great flaw is to be understood/remembered.
Comments – Astrologers treat all the Aprakasha Graha as same, 99% astrologer either ignore Aprakash Graha or are unaware of them [pathetic is the condition of astrology]. However, here it is clearly stated that Dhooma and Parivesha are great defects [extremely malefic] whereas Vyatipaata and Indrachaapa create flaws but to a smaller extent [as compared to Dhooma and Parivesha], and Upaketu is only malefic but it doesn’t create any kind of flaw.
इति धूमादिदोषाणां स्थिति पद्मासनोदिताII65II
Translation – Conjoined with Sun, Moon or Ascendant they [these Aprakash Graha’s] destroy Lineage, Longevity and Knowledge/Intelligence respectively. This is to be understood by the position/sitting of flaws like Dhooma.
Comments – It is told that these Aprakash Graha’s creates flaws, which kind of flaw is mentioned/hinted here. This Shloka gives us a hint that wherever these Aprakash Graha’s are placed they tend to damage the significations of that house or planet. Here it is to be understood that this Aprakash Graha’s only become effective when they conjoin with some planets, when they are merely placed in a Bhava but not conjoined with any planet, they don’t create any such flaws unless the house is under severe affliction by aspects of malefics. When they are in any Bhava with Significator of that Bhava then they greatly damage that Bhava, on the other hand when they are in a Bhava but that Bhava is well fortified by aspect of lord of that Bhava, in that case, they won’t create any kind of flaws [some exceptions are here which I won’t mention].
One thing must be understood here, as I have taught in my course, Prakash which means light can also mean something shining due to some good Karma’s, something worth mentioning, works which can be boasted off, normals planets no matter how malefic they still reflect some good Karma’s. Aprakash means devoid of any light, here light is in the sense of benevolence, there Aprakash Graha indicates extremely bad [dark] Karma’s which is very bad and can be compared to sin. But sometimes these Aprakash Graha’s can also indicate combinations for asceticism or Raajyoga’s but that happens only under special circumstances and almost 99% of times these Aprakash Graha’s only indicates flawed Karma’s which can be considered as sin [Example horoscope below].
रविवारादिशन्यन्तं गुलिकादि निरूप्यतेI
दिवसानष्टधा भक्त्वा वारेशाद गणयेत क्रमात्II66II
अष्टमोंअशो निरिषःस्याच्छन्यंशो गुलिकःस्मृतःI
रात्रिमप्यष्टधा कृत्वा वरेशात् पञ्चमादितःII67II
गणयेदष्टमः खण्डो निष्पतिः परिकीतिर्तःI
शन्यंशो गुलिकःप्रोक्तो रव्यंशः कालसंज्ञकःII68II
भौमांशो मृत्युरादिष्टो गुर्वंशो यमघण्टकःI
सौम्यांशोअर्धप्रहरकः स्वस्वदेशोदभवः स्फुटःII69II
Translation – Now I am describing how to find Gulika from Sunday [first day of the week] to Saturday. Find the duration of the day and divide it into eight equal parts and start counting from the lord of the weekday [Sun-Moon-Mars-Mercury-Jupiter-Venus and Saturn], the eighth-part is without any lord, the part of Saturn is known/remembered as Gulika. For night birth, divide the duration of the night into eight equal parts and start counting from the fifth planet from the weekday lord [Hence Sunday – Jupiter, Monday – Venus, Tuesday – Saturn, Wednesday- Sun, Thursday – Moon, Friday – Mars and Saturday – Mercury], the eighth portion is without any lord [empty]. The part of Saturn [eight portions given to Saturn] is remembered/known as Gulika, Sun’s portion is known as Kaala, Mars’s portion is known as Mrityu, Jupiter’s portion is known as Yamaghantaka, Mercury’s portion is known as Ardhaprahara. Longitude [position] of these portions [Upagraha’s] is equal to the ascendant degree at that time.
Comments – First of all we came to know that the first day of the week is Sunday and not Monday as many people believe. Another confusion here is that some astrologer’s take the rising point of Gulika at the end of Saturn’s portion, here it is clearly stated that the eighth portion is without any lord [empty] and the portion of Saturn is known as Gulika, thus it can be said that the rising point of Saturn’s portion is the position of Gulika, the rising point of Sun’s portion is the position of Kaala etc. Regarding difference between Gulika and Maandi, I am of the opinion that Gulika and Maandi are two different points [not planets] and the position of Maandi is at the middle of Saturn’s portion in a day/night – this conclusion is based on my study of Shri P. S. Iyer’s articles, he was a great prashna astrologer [will write about him and Prashna in a separate article].
There is a basic difference between Aprakash Graha’s and Upagraha’s, as their name suggests Aprakash Graha’s indicate about worst Karma’s which can be considered as a sin, it indicates those area’s where we don’t have good Karma’s or sufficiently lacking good Karma’s whereas Upagraha’s means sub-planets. It is very important to note that both female planets [Venus and Moon] have no Upagraha assigned to them, as it is told in Vedic Scriptures that Gulika is the son of Saturn [Maandi is another name for Saturn himself], I am of the opinion that all these Upagraha’s are son of their respective corresponding planets, it will be more clear when we will look at what Phaladeepika tells us about the nature of different Aprakash Graha’s.
Example – A horoscope is given below for calculations of Upagraha and Aprakash Graha.
March 28, 1976; 03:53:43; Kolkata
In the given example Sun is in Pisces sign 13 Degree and 52 Minutes which will be written as 11.13.52 where 11 indicated that Sun has crossed 11 signs from Aries and is in the 12th sign Pisces having crossed 13 degrees and 52 minutes in Pisces itself which means Sun is in Pisces 14th degree.
Now first let we calculate Aprakash Graha. Sun 11.13.52 +04.13.20=15.26.72 [rounding it up because there are only 12 signs, 30 degrees and 60 minutes, we get] = 03.27.12 which means his Dooma is in cancer 27 degree 12 Minutes. 12.00.00 – Dhooma 03.27.12 = 08.02.48 which means his Vyatipaata is in 02 Degree 48 Minutes Sagittarius. Vyatipaata 08.02.48 + 06.00.00 = 14.02.48 [rounded up] = 02.02.48 which means his Parivesha is in Gemini 02 degree 48 minutes. 12.00.00 – Parivesha 02.02.48 = 09.27.12 which means his Indrachaapa is in Capricorn 27 degree 12 minutes. Indrachaapa 09.27.12 + 00.16.40 = 09.43.52 [rounded up] = 10.13.52 which means his Upaketu is in Aquarius 13 degree 52 minutes. Adding 1 sign to Upaketu we get his Sun’s position at Pisces 13 degree 52 minutes [it proves that our calculation is correct and we haven’t made any mistake anywhere, if adding one sign to Upaketu doesn’t give the longitude of Sun then your calculation is incorrect.
Now let we find Upagraha’s. Sunset on March 27, 1976, happened at 17:47 and Sunrise on March 28, 1976, will happen on 05:36. It will take 11 hours 49 minutes. [11 hours from 17:47 to 04:47 and rest 13+36 = 49 minutes]. Now convert it into minutes, hence 1 hour = 60 minutes, thus 11 hours = 11X60=660 minutes + 49 minutes = 709 minutes. 709/8= 88.625 which means 88 minutes [0.625X60=37.5] 37 Seconds [0.5X60=30] 30 milliseconds will make one portion [out of eight portions of night]. 28 March 1976 was Saturday, at Sunset [17:47] ascendant was Virgo 14 degree 28 minutes. 5th lord from Saturn is Mercury hence Ardhapraha will be at Virgo 14 degree 28 Minutes [Small error can be there due to seconds of Sunset timings being unknown]. Now add 88 minutes to 17:47 which means we have to add [88-60=28] 1 hour 28 minutes. Hence 17:47+01.28=18.75 [rounded up 75-60=15] 19.15. Now at 19.15 ascendant is Libra 04 degree 39 minutes, next from Mercury is Jupiter hence Yamakantaka will be at Libra 04 degree 39 minutes. Like this, we have to find positions of remaining Upagraha’s too, I am leaving calculations section here for ease [these calculations are readily available in Jagannath Hora software which can be downloaded from here.
Verses from 25th Chapter of Phaladeepika dealing with Aprakash Graha and Upagraha
नमामि मान्दिं यमकण्टकाख्यमर्द्धप्रहारं भुवि कालसंज्ञमI
Translation – Salutations to Maandi, Yamakantaka, Ardhapraha, Kaala, Dhooma, Vyatipaata, Paridhi, Indrachaapa and Upaketu.
Comments – No mention is made of Mrityu which is an Upagraha of Mars.
रवियुक्ते पितृहन्ता मातृक्लेशी निशापसंयुक्तेI
भ्रातृवियोगः सकुजे बुधयुक्ते मन्दजे च सोन्मादीII15II
गुरुयुक्ते पाषण्डी शुक्रयुते नीचकामिनीसङ्गःI
शनियुक्ते शनिपुत्रे कुष्ठव्याध्यदिर्तश्च सोअपल्पायुःII16II
विषरोगी राहुयुते शिखियुक्ते वह्निपीडितो मान्दौI
गुलिकस्त्याज्ययुतश्चेत्तस्मिञ्जातो नृपोअपि भिक्षाशीII17
Translation – If Gulika is conjoined with Sun then it gives premature demise of father, if it is with Moon then is gives troubles to mother [native fights with mother], if it is with Mars then one is separated from his siblings, if it is conjoined with Mercury then one is lunatic [suffering from mental abnormalities], if it is with Jupiter then one is engaged in heresy, if it is with Venus then one copulates with inferior women [prostitutes etc], if it is with Saturn then one suffers from leprosy and have a short life. if it is conjoined with Rahu then one suffers from poison, if it is with Ketu then one has danger from fire. If one is born in such a degree where Gulika has just crossed then one will be a pauper even if he is born in a King’s family.
Comments – Here one can clearly notice that sage has very carefully mentioned about destruction/distortion in significations of planets conjoined with Gulika. When we look at the effects of Gulika through different houses we find that Gulika gives some good effects in the 3rd house and complete good effects in the 6th house and 11th house. According to my understanding, sage has taken Gulika to be a negative manifestation of Saturn. Distortion is the nature of Saturn, but Saturn being a planet is somewhat merciful in distortion [altough sages have used very strong words for Saturn too], Gulika being an Upagraha of Saturn is like Saturn and is a negative face/avatar of Saturn. We have to understand about other Upagraha’s in the same way.
One controversial point here is the use of the word “ताज्य” in the last Shloka, Pandit Gopesh Kumar Ojha has translated this Tajya to mean Tajya portions of Nakshatra’s, whereas according to me Tajya means “left one” and here it refers to the portion of zodiac just left by Gulika, which means if Gulika is at 23degree Virgo then we can say that Gulika have just left 22nd degree of Virgo and is now in the 23rd degree. Birth in this left out degree, or in a simple language ascendant degree being very close Gulika degree makes one vulnerable to poverty.
गुलिकस्य तु संयोगे दोषान्सवर्त्र निर्दिशेत्I
यमकण्टकसंयोगे सर्वत्र कथयेच्छुभमII18II
दोषप्रदाने गुलिको बलीयान शुभप्रदाने यमकण्टकः स्यात्I
अन्ये च सर्वे व्यसनप्रदाने मान्ध्युक्तवीर्यार्द्धबलान्विताः स्युःII19II
Translation – Wherever Gulika is conjoined he destroys the results [of that Bhava/Planet], the conjunction of Yamkantaka is always auspicious. Gulika is very strong in giving malefic or inauspicious results and Yamkantaka is very strong in giving auspicious results, other Upagraha’s in given vices are half as powerful as Gulika.
Comments – As Gulika is a negative manifestation of Saturn, Yamkantaka is a benefic manifestation of Jupiter.
Destroying results is a game-changer in the analysis of Rajayogas.
Regarding other Upagraha’s sage has used the word Vices and not malefic results, which means other Upagraha’s only distorts some of the significations of planets they are conjoined with but doesn’t completely destroy the significations. For example, one having a close conjunction between Gulika and Venus may become a rapist or someone very unconventional in sexual relationships whereas one having other Upagraha’s connected with Venus will only be over-sexed but not as much as the Gulika and Venus conjunction case.
शनिवदगुलिके प्रोक्तं गुरुवध्यमकण्टकेI
अर्धप्रहारे बुधवत्फलं काले तु राहुवतII20II
कालस्तु राहुगुर्लिकस्तु मृत्युजीर्वातुकः स्याध्यमकण्टकोअपिI
अर्धप्रहारः शुभदः शुभाङ्कयुक्तोअन्यथा चेद्शुभं विदध्यात्II21II
Translation – Gulika is like Saturn, Yamkantaka is like Jupiter, Ardhaprahara is like Mercury, Kaala is like Rahu, Kala is like Rahu, Gulika is like death, Yamkatanka is life giver like Jupiter [Jupiter indicates Akash tattva which binds all the other four elements giving us life], Ardhaprahara gives good results in houses conjoined with benefics otherwise he gives bad effects.
Comments – We have learnt from Brihat Parashara Hora Shastra that Kaala is an Upagraha of Sun, thus according to me in the first Shloka Kala is like Rahu is an error in copying Shlokas. In second Shloka sage is just mentioning nature of these Upagraha’s and then mention of Kaala as Rahu is right in this regard because Sun indicates time [time is controlled by movement of Sun] and in the same way Kaala like time either delays results or give very quick results, it has many other significations of time as well such as cruelty, you must remember that Kaala is Son of Sun and Sun is not a malefic but a cruel planet which translated to merciless but not malefic.
We see that the nature of Mercury being benefic with benefics and malefic with malefics is also passed on to Ardhaprahara who is none other than Son of Mercury. Thus it is right to conclude that all these Upagraha’s are only higher-octaves of their parents.
ते भावा नाशतां यान्ति वदतीति पराशरःII22II
Translation – Even if the Bhava is tenanted by its lord but the presence of Graha [remember they are considered as Graha only] like Dhooma effect of that Bhava is destroyed, this is told by Parashara
Commentary – I this is a misleading Shloka or this Shloka have some errors, according to me it must be like “if a Bhava is tenanted by its lord then the presence of Graha’s like Dhooma won’t create disturbance in results of that Bhava”. I am of this opinion because otherwise, six houses of a horoscope will always be destroyed because starting from lord of that day all five Upagraha will be placed in successive signs and Aprakash Graha’s will always occupy 2-8-5-11-12 houses from Sun [roughly]. Because I have told one exception I tell another exception too, Upagraha’s when situated in their father’s own sign or their exaltation sign, they won’t create disturbance in that Bhava, unless that Bhava is already heavily afflicted and on the other hands these Aprakash Graha’s in the debilitation or enemy sign of their father’s tend to create more disturbances/troubles.
धूमे सन्ततमुष्णं स्यादग्निभीतिमनोव्यथाI
व्यतिपाते मृगभयं चतुष्पान्मरणं तु वाII23II
परिवेशे जले भीरुजलरोगश्च बन्धनंI
इन्द्रचापे शिलाघातः क्षतं शस्त्रैरपि च्युतिःII24II
केतौ पतनघाताध्यं कार्यनाशोअशनेभयंI
एते यद्भावसहितास्तद्दशायां फलं वदेत्II25II
Translation – Dhooma gives strong burning sensation, danger from fire and mental troubles. Vyatipata signifies danger from animals with horns and four-footed animals [basically danger from any kind of animals]. Parivesha gives danger from water and troubles from water-related diseases it also gives bondage or jail. Indrachaapa signifies hurt from stone or falling from hills, attack from weapons and fall. Ketu gives danger from falling, thunder-storm and destroys business [undertakings]. These results are felt by the native in the period of the lord of the sign where these Aprakash Graha’s are placed.
Comments – We can mix these significations to arrive at results of a conjunction of these Aprakash Graha’s with other planets etc.
अप्रकाशाः सञ्चरन्ति धूमाध्या पञ्च खेचराःI
Translation – Dhooma etc [Dhooma, Vyatipaata, Parivesha, Indrachaapa and Upaketu] five planets move in the sky invisible and sometimes they are seen somewhere [in the sky] when they are visible from any part of the earth than that part of the earth suffers natural calamities or riots.
Comments – Some uneducated people speculate that our ancient sages were unable to know about more than nine planets and as a result, they never included Neptune, Uranus and Pluto into horoscopy but we tiny pieces of ego’s are smarter then sages and we must include these extra-saturnine planets. To all those people I have always given a simple reply that sages have discovered about Rahu and Ketu which can’t be seen even using telescopes and sages have also discovered about sub-planets [which can be considered as Moon of different planets; upa-graha] it is very interesting to note that scientists are very clear that Venus has no Moon but they still speculate that Mercury has some moon which we are unable to identify due to its proximity with Sun, regarding Moon of Sun I can say nothing, but the speed of modern discoveries tallying with words of our sage made me a strong believer that one day scientists will also find a moon-like planet orbiting around Sun. The science of astronomy is very deep and scientists are still to explore it whereas out ancient sage shave already explored it and wrote their experiences/findings in our religious scriptures. [Someday I will write about the story of Pandit Suryanarayan Vyas and then you will know about it].
After this study of Aprakash Graha and Upagraha, I think we are very clear that in Vedic Jyotish there are not nine but nineteen planets and I don’t think three more planets are needed, what is needed is a well-planned research on these ten ignored planets.
धूमस्तु धूमपटलः पुच्छक्षमिति केचनI
उल्कापातो व्यतिपातः परिवेषस्तु दृश्यतेII28II
लोके प्रसिद्धम् यद्दृष्टं तदेवेन्द्रधनुः स्मृतंI
केतुश्च धूमकेतुः स्याल्लोकोपद्रवकारकःII29II
Translation – Dhooma is like the cloud of smoke and is a comet, Vyatipaata is a meteorite, Parivesha appears like a circle around Sun and Moon [light], world-famous rainbow itself is Indrachaapa and Upaketu is another comet. When they are visible it becomes a cause of nuisance.
गुलिकभवननाथे केन्द्रगे वा त्रिकोणे बलिनि निजगृहस्थे स्वोच्चमित्रस्थिते वाI
रथगजतुरगाणां नायको मारतुल्यो महितपृथुयशासस्यान्मेदिनीमण्डलेन्द्रःII30II
Translation – Dispositor of Gulika if placed in quadrants or trines or in own sign, exaltation, friendly sign then the native possesses many vehicles, conveniences, is fulfilled [rich], is beautiful like god of love, famous and live like a king
Comments – I gave this Shloka only to highlight that Upagraha’s are not always malefics but also benefics at sometimes and can produce Raajyoga’s as well as Pravrajya Yoga’s.
Example horoscope [Given above]
The time is rectified by me and when you cast his D60 chart you find his D60 ascendant as Libra with Venus which very clearly indicates his name starting from the alphabet “R”, this was the main reason behind rectification, along with this I have also used the definitive ascendant technique.
First of all, when we look at his ascendant we find 6th lord Moon in ascendant and ascendant lord Saturn in 6th house, exchanges are very important in the analysis of a horoscope, a birth chart always rotates around exchanges in birth horoscopes, hence it is always advised to carefully judge all the exchanges in horoscope beforehand. Here this exchange clearly implies that this native will be either under heavy debt, will be always sickly and die very quickly or will remain under jail most of the time of his life. Due to Saturn being in Pushkaramasha critical health condition is ruled out and we are only left with a life in jails or heavy debt. To decide between these two significations we have to clearly examine his ascendant to find out that his birth ascendant is of 10 degrees and Moon is of 13 degrees, Upaketu and Mrityu are in ascendant at 13 and 14 degree’s respectively clearly indicating that this is a case of extreme anger due to Mrityu being son of Mars. Once seen that his ascendant is severely and closely afflicted by a combination of Aprakash Graha’s and Upagraha’s my first step is to see all those Bhava’s where Aprakash Graha’s and Upagraha’s are placed making a connection with Nitya Graha’s [well known nine planets], next we find Parivesha who is a very destructive Aprakash Graha in 5th house in combination with Mars and 5th lord debilitated in 2nd house with Sun another fire indicator clearly indicating that this persons intelligence [ascendant and 5th house] both is overtaken by anger and he has lost all his senses in front of his anger, destructive aspect of Aprakash Graha’s also indicates that his education will be lacking to a great extent. Next, we find Dhooma another destructive Aprakash Graha in 6th house in conjunction with Saturn who is also Lagna lord which indicates complete loss of intellect and secures a place for him in imprisonment. Coming to the next house we find most benefic Yamakantaka conjoined his Rahu in 9th house which made him lucky that he came out of imprisonment, had two twin daughters and also married.
I don’t wish to elaborate more on this chart, the horoscope is in front of you, the technique is shared by me, you can judge the chart yourself.
Conclusion – Aprakasha graha’s indicates deformity, Upagraha work as higher-octaves of their fathers, both of them only become fatal/effective to the level of changing horoscopic promises when they are conjoined with another planet. Keeping these points in mind along with my other comments made in this article will help you quickly identify horoscopes of rapists, murderers and people with a mental deformity which is a nuisance to society. God willing I will soon present some such horoscopes as case studies.
Sri Ramakrishna Arpanamastu